Oh, I kid. Despite the name, nothing about this post is a prank (except perhaps for the title).
It’s been a week and a half since the Planck collaboration released their measurements of the cosmic microwave background. At the time, I wrote about some of the many other places you can read about what those measurements mean for cosmology and particle physics. But it’s a little harder to find information on how we come to those conclusions. So I thought I’d dig into the science behind the cosmic microwave background: how we measure it and how we manipulate those measurements to come up with numbers.
Measuring the CMB
With that in mind, what did Planck actually measure? Well, the satellite is basically a spectrometer attached to a telescope. It has 74 individual detectors, each of which detects photons in one of 9 separate frequency ranges. As the telescope points in a certain direction, each detector records how much energy carried by photons in its frequency range hit it from that direction. The data collected would look something like the points in this plot:
From any one of these data points, given the frequency and the measured power …